Cannabis Terminology Glossary

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As a cannabis business owner, it’s crucial to have a solid understanding of the terminology used to describe everything in your industry. From marketing and advertising to legal compliance, mastering the essential concepts will provide you with the necessary knowledge to excel in this rapidly growing field.

Moreover, keeping abreast of the ever-changing regulations governing the cannabis industry is equally vital. By staying informed about the latest developments in legislation and local laws, you can ensure that your business remains compliant at all times.

Table of Contents


4/20, 420, or 4:20 is a cultural slang term that relates to smoking marijuana or hashish at 4:20 p.m. It originated in the 1970s when a group of teenagers in North California used it as a secret code for smoking weed. It has since become an annual celebration of marijuana that happens on the 20th of April around the world when marijuana enthusiasts gather to both educate the public and enjoy the cannabis plant.

See also: Shatter, Wax, Hash Oil, Resin.


Similar to 4/20, 7/10 is also considered a holiday for cannabis enthusiasts, especially those who consume cannabis oil products, dabs, and concentrates. If you turn the term 710 upside down, you’ll see that it spells OIL, which is another reference to potent cannabis products such as shatter, wax, hash oil, resin, and others.

See also: Shatter, Wax, Hash Oil, Resin.

Category “A” Flower

Category “A” refers to the highest quality cannabis flowers, harvested from the top colas of the plant. These dense and thick flowers are sold as whole buds and are typically larger than 0.75 inches (approx. 20mm). They offer a visually appealing appearance and are known for their exceptional potency, flavor, and aroma.

Category “A/B” Flower Mix

The A/B Flower Mix is a blend of Category “A” and Category “B” cannabis flowers. It combines high-quality A-Flowers with slightly lower-grade B-Flowers, offering a range of sizes, densities, and characteristics. The mix caters to those seeking a varied cannabis experience that encompasses qualities from both categories.


Aeroponics is a hydroponic growing technique where plant roots are suspended in the air and nourished with a fine mist of water and nutrients. Unlike traditional soil-based methods, this system maximizes oxygen uptake and promotes rapid growth.

See also: Hydroponics.


Appraisal entails the meticulous grading and thorough quality verification of raw materials and byproducts. This critical process ensures utmost consistency, value, and strict adherence to industry standards. Rest assured, a reliable appraisal is paramount in upholding the quality, integrity, and credibility of the evaluated items.

See also: Graded, Quality-Verified


Aquaponics is a hydroponic method where plants float on water, and fish below provide nutrients through their waste. The plants filter the water, creating a symbiotic system. This sustainable approach combines aquaculture and hydroponics, resulting in efficient nutrient recycling.

See also: Hydroponics

Alcohol Extraction

Alcohol, such as grain alcohol, ethanol, or isopropyl alcohol, is used to extract a full spectrum of plant compounds for tinctures or further processing into full-extract cannabis oils.

See also: Full Extract Cannabis Oil, Rick Simpson Oil (RSO), Extract


Autoflowering refers to cannabis varieties, such as Ruderalis, that automatically switch from the vegetative to the flowering stage based on maturity, not the photoperiod. These plants mature more quickly than Indica or Sativa varieties, which rely on specific light cycles to trigger flowering.

See also: Photoperiod, Ruderalis

Category “B” Flower Mix

B-flowers, also referred to as “larf” or “popcorn buds,” develop underneath the plant’s canopy and possess a smaller and less dense structure compared to A-flowers. This difference is a result of limited exposure to full light. B-flowers typically measure less than 0.75 inches (approx. 20mm) in size.

See also: Larf, Popcorn Buds


Backcrossing involves breeding a hybrid plant with one of its parent plants to increase the likelihood of desired genetics in subsequent generations of offspring.


Under specific genetic and stressful conditions, a female cannabis flower can exhibit hermaphroditism. The initial signs of this condition are elongated yellow-green stamens, called “bananas,” emerging from the female bract. These bananas can lead to unintentional pollination and seed formation.

See also: Stamen


A blunt is very similar to a joint, with the exception of the rolling papers that are swapped for tobacco or cigar wrapping paper. This gives the roll a unique flavor once you smoke it.


A bract serves as a protective leaf surrounding the ovule or potential seed. These tear-shaped green leaves are often accompanied by stigmas and possess high concentrations of trichomes.

See also: Stigma

Bract-to-leaf ratio

The bract-to-leaf ratio impacts the value of cannabis and hemp flowers. Bracts, containing a higher concentration of trichomes compared to sugar leaves, contribute to the overall quality and desirability of the plant material.


A branch refers to the secondary stalks that emerge from the main stem of a cannabis or hemp plant, providing support for the development of flowers.


Broad-spectrum cannabis products contain all the plant compounds naturally found in the cannabis plant, apart from THC.

Bubble hash

Bubble hash is a solventless cannabis concentrate renowned for its bubbling effect when heated. The name “bubble hash” also stems from its extraction method utilizing “Bubble Bags,” a popular tool employed in the ice water hash extraction process.

See also: Hash


Bucking is a vital phase in the harvest process, where flowers are skillfully detached, or “bucked,” from their stems and branches. This practice, executed with expertise and precision, ensures the utmost quality and efficiency.


“Bud” is a commonly used term to refer to the dense, nugget-shaped flowers found on cannabis and hemp plants.

Budtender/Sales Associate

A budtender, or sales associate, is a highly knowledgeable and customer-oriented professional working in cannabis dispensaries. These individuals offer personalized guidance and support to customers, facilitating informed decision-making about cannabis products. Budtenders/sales associates play a vital role in driving sales and ensuring customer satisfaction through their expertise and engaged approach.


Butane is a high-yielding solvent utilized to extract cannabinoids and terpene-rich trichomes from cannabis leaf material. Controlled industrial processes evaporate the butane, leaving behind extracted hash known as BHO, shatter, or wax, consumed through vaporization, dabbing, or further refinement through distillation.

See also: Butane Hash Oil

Butane Hash Oil (BHO) / Wax

Butane Hash Oil (BHO) is a category of cannabis extracts produced by using butane as the solvent in the extraction process. BHO is further processed to create wax, also known as dabs, which is a potent cannabis concentrate with high levels of THC. Wax is derived from BHO through a chemical extraction method that isolates cannabis oils from the plant material.

See also: Butane

Butane Hash Oil Extraction

This procedure involves blasting cannabis flower petals into butane producing a crystalline resin called wax. The wax is then further purified and heated to eliminate the solvent.

Cannabichromene (CBC)

Cannabichromene (CBC) is an abundant phytocannabinoid naturally found in cannabis plants. It holds the distinction of being the third most plentiful cannabinoid, trailing behind THC and CBD. Appreciated for its potential analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties, CBC does not induce psychoactive effects like THC.

Cannabidiol (CBD)

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a naturally occurring phytocannabinoid found in cannabis plants. It offers therapeutic benefits without the psychoactive effects of THC. CBD is widely recognized for its potential in promoting relaxation, improving sleep, and relieving pain. It is available in various forms, including oils, tinctures, and topicals.

See also: Hemp

Cannabigerol (CBG)

Cannabigerol (CBG) serves as the precursor for pivotal phytocannabinoids, such as THCa, CBDa, and CBCa, as the cannabis plant reaches maturity. With its notable potential for analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties, CBG offers these benefits without inducing psychotropic or intoxicating effects.


Cannabinoids are naturally occurring chemical compounds that have biological activity and interact with receptors in the endocannabinoid system. These compounds can be classified into four main types: endogenous cannabinoids, phytocannabinoids, pharmaceutical cannabinoids, and synthetic cannabinoids. Among the vast array of identified cannabinoids, the most widely recognized ones are THC and CBD.

See also: Endogenous cannabinoids, phytocannabinoids, pharmaceutical cannabinoids, and Synthetic Cannabinoids

Cannabinoid Profile

Cannabinoid profile refers to the unique and varying ratios of cannabinoids present in a specific cannabis cultivar, influencing its overall effects and characteristics.

Cannabinoid ratios

Cannabinoid ratios are the ratios between cannabinoids in a cannabis product. For example, the ratio of CBD to THC shows us how much CBD there is in a dose compared to THC.


Cannabinoids are naturally occurring compounds found in the cannabis plant. Out of over 400 compounds present in cannabis, over 60 of them are cannabinoids. These compounds, mainly tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) give cannabis a wide range of potential effects on consumers. The former is responsible for the intoxicating effects that people who consume cannabis experience, while the latter may produce pain-relieving, sedative, anti-inflammatory, and other effects.

Cannabinol (CBN)

Cannabinol (CBN) is a cannabinoid that develops from the degradation of Δ-9 THC over time. Recognized for its potential analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and sleep-enhancing properties.

See also: Δ-9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)


Cannabis is a versatile plant with origins in Central and South Asia. It has spread globally and is used for various purposes, including the production of oils, concentrates, tinctures, and vapes. It can also be smoked in joints and blunts after the drying and curing process. Cannabis comprises three main species: cannabis Sativa, cannabis Indica, and Cannabis ruderalis.

Cannabis can also be called marijuana in some slang terms. Some nicknames for marijuana and cannabis include ganja, bud, doja, and Mary Jane.

Cannabis / Dispensary POS Software

POS software helps dispensaries automate checkout processes. A good point-of-sales system integrates with your inventory/inventory management systems (such as METRC) or your loyalty program/card processing system. The law prohibits sales over the state limit on sales. POS systems should have easy-to-use interfaces to help budtenders sell cannabis quickly.

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Cannabis Digital Marketing

Refers to the strategies used to promote cannabis products and brands online while complying with legal restrictions.

Cannabis flowers

Cannabis flowers, also known as buds, are the intricate reproductive structures present in female cannabis plants. These blooms, richly abundant in cannabinoids, contain the highest concentration of potent compounds, making them highly valued by cannabis enthusiasts. With their versatility, these aromatic flowers can be expertly smoked, delicately vaped, precisely processed into concentrated forms, and more.

See also: Buds


Cannabutter is a cannabis butter that uses regular butter and infuses it with cannabis until the cannabis is fully decarboxylated so it produces the desired effects in consumers. The cannabutter is later used to make a wide variety of cannabis edibles and drinks.

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Extracting

Carbon dioxide (CO2) extraction is an advanced method that utilizes CO2 as a solvent to extract cannabinoids and terpenes from cannabis material. This process, performed under specific pressure and temperature conditions, yields high-quality CO2 oil, shatter, or wax. The extracted cannabinoid profile is then separated and filtered, with excess CO2 being released. This clean and potent cannabis oil is widely consumed through vaporization, dabbing, or further distillation.

See also: Cannabinoid Profile, Distillate

CB1 & CB2 Receptors

The endocannabinoid system encompasses two key receptors, CB1 and CB2, central to regulating immune and inflammatory pathways, and neurotransmission. Upon consumption of cannabis, cannabinoids within the product bind to these receptors, leading to the observed effects. This process facilitates neurotransmission modulation, underscoring the endocannabinoid system’s pivotal role in the human body.

Certificate of Grade

A Certificate of Grade is an official document that confirms the quality assessment and scoring performed according to the International Cannabis and Hemp Standards by an approved Fair Market Certification provider.


Chemotype refers to the unique chemical profile of a cannabis cultivar, including its cannabinoid, terpene, and flavonoid compositions.

See also: Genotype and Phenotype


A clone is a genetically identical plant produced through asexual reproduction by taking cuttings from a mother plant. Clones ensure consistency and uniformity in cultivation practices.

Closed-Loop Extraction

Closed-loop extraction is an advanced industrial process that utilizes a sealed system to extract solvents and CO efficiently, ensuring minimal environmental impact. By safely recapturing and recycling solvents, this method reduces risks and promotes sustainability. Concentrate producers can obtain state licenses to employ this closed-loop technique.

See also: Extraction

CO2 Oil

CO2 oil is a cannabis concentrate obtained through the extraction process using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) as a solvent. This technique ensures the extraction of specific cannabinoids and desired compounds, resulting in a high-quality oil with various medicinal and recreational applications.


Cola refers to the large, dense flowers that grow at the top of cannabis plants. The term “cola” originated from the Spanish word for “tail,” representing the shape of these sought-after flower clusters.


Concentrates are highly potent cannabis substances derived from the mechanical separation of trichomes, the resinous structures on the plant’s surface. These products, including dry sift, kief, live resin, and honey oil, offer significantly elevated cannabinoid and terpene concentrations, providing enhanced effects and therapeutic benefits. With precise extraction methods, concentrates boast a broad spectrum of cannabinoids and are prized for their versatility and potency in the cannabis industry.

See also: Extract, Full Spectrum, Hash, Kief

Cross (genetics)

In the realm of genetics, a cross signifies the intentional breeding of two distinct plant varieties, resulting in an offspring that inherits desirable traits from each parent strain. By carefully selecting and combining genetic lineages, breeders aim to create hybrid plants with specific growth patterns, flowering times, yields, and sensory characteristics. Understanding the intricate genetics behind a cross is pivotal in cannabis cultivation and plays a vital role in shaping successful cannabis businesses.


While “strain” is often misused to describe plant varieties, “cultivar” accurately refers to the unique final product resulting from cultivated plants. It represents the combined influence of genetics and cultivation practices, resulting in various chemotypic, genotypic, and phenotypic expressions.

See also: Chemotype, Genotype, Phenotype


Curing is the crucial last phase of the cannabis flower drying process. Through precise control of temperature, humidity, and light conditions, the flowers undergo aging, thereby preserving and enriching their unique flavors and captivating aromas.


Dabbing is a popular consumption method that involves inhaling concentrated cannabis products through a specialized device called a dab rig. These concentrated products, commonly referred to as dabs, are placed on the dab rig and vaporized for inhalation. Cannabis oils and resins are among the most commonly used substances for dabbing, providing potent and efficient consumption experiences.

See also: Concentrates, Extracts


Decarboxylation is a vital process that converts acid cannabinoids, commonly referred to as “raw” cannabinoids, into their active forms. By subjecting cannabinoids to heat, the carboxyl group is eliminated, resulting in the alteration of the cannabinoid’s structure. This process holds immense significance in activating Δ-9 THC or CBD in raw cannabis, particularly for the preparation of edibles. It is important to note that different cannabinoids decarboxylate at varying rates, necessitating specific heat and time parameters to achieve desired outcomes.

Delta 9 (Δ-9) Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)

When heated, THCa converts into Δ-9 THC, the primary psychoactive compound in cannabis. THC possesses various medicinal properties, including anti-inflammatory, analgesic, neuroprotective, antibacterial, and appetite-stimulating effects.


Distillate is a refined extract obtained through precise pressure, temperature, and heat processes. The resulting oil contains a concentration of 90% or more of a specific cannabinoid, often THC or CBD.

See also: Extract, Extraction: Isolate

Distillate vape concentrate

Distillates are extracts of the cannabis plant that have been stripped of all cannabis compounds except one cannabinoid, so they don’t have any flavor, taste, or aroma. Distillate vape concentrates combine smoking concentrates with vaping.

Doctor’s recommendations

Due to cannabis being classified as a Schedule I Controlled Substance in the United States, doctors issue “recommendations” rather than prescriptions. Unlike prescriptions, recommendations do not specify dosage, ingestion method, or frequency, allowing patients more flexibility in their cannabis usage.

Dronabinol (Marinol)

Dronabinol, marketed as Marinol, is an FDA-approved synthetic THC suspended in sesame oil. Developed in the 1980s, it belongs to a class of synthetic cannabinoid-based drugs. Research comparing dronabinol to full spectrum cannabis suggests that the entourage effect, involving all the plant’s phytochemicals working together, plays a role in the effects of cannabis rather than THC alone.

See also: Entourage Effect, Cannabinoid

Dry Drum Trimmed

Flowers classified as “dry drum trimmed” undergo a mechanical process in which they are tumbled in a drum to separate the sugar leaves from the flower. These flowers can be sold in their entirety or utilized for extraction purposes. This technique ensures efficient separation and maintains the integrity of the flower.

See also: Trim

Dry Scissor Trimmed

Cannabis flowers categorized as “scissor trimmed, dry” are dried with the sugar leaves intact and manually sculpted before being sold as whole flowers.

See also: Trim


Drying is the essential process of eliminating moisture from cannabis flowers by placing them in controlled environments. This stage ensures proper preservation and prepares the flowers for consumption or further processing.


Edibles are food and drink products infused with cannabis or hemp extracts, providing consumers with an alternative and discreet method of cannabis consumption. These products undergo precise formulation processes to ensure accurate dosing and consistent effects. With a wide variety of options available, such as cannabis-infused brownies, lollipops, chocolates, and beverages, edibles offer a longer-lasting and controlled cannabis experience for users.

Endocannabinoid system

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a complex network of receptors found throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems of mammals and other animals. It plays a crucial role in maintaining balance and harmony within the body, influencing processes such as mood, pain sensation, sleep, appetite, and digestion. The ECS interacts with both naturally occurring cannabinoids produced by the body (endocannabinoids) and cannabinoids from external sources, like cannabis, to regulate these vital functions. Understanding the ECS is essential for unlocking the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in the field of medicine.

See also: Cannabinoid

Endogenous Cannabinoid

Endogenous cannabinoids are naturally occurring cannabinoids produced within the human body. They play a vital role in regulating various physiological processes.

See also: Cannabinoid, Endocannabinoid System

Entourage Effect

The entourage effect, also known as the ensemble effect, refers to the combined impact of the full spectrum of chemical compounds present in a specific cannabis cultivar. Rather than isolating individual elements, it emphasizes the synergy among these components for the effects of cannabis varieties.


Environment refers to the provision of essential inputs, such as light, temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide, and water, to support plant growth. Controlled environments include indoor settings, greenhouses, and hoop houses, while outdoor cultivation relies on natural conditions with minimal environmental controls.

Exit bag

Exit bags are childproof containers mandated by state-level cannabis regulations. They are used to transport legally purchased cannabis from dispensaries to consumers’ homes.


An extract is a concentrated form of cannabis obtained by stripping trichomes from plant material using chemical solvents like alcohol, butane, propane, or carbon dioxide. The resulting concentrate may no longer be full spectrum. While all extracts are concentrates, not all concentrates are extracts.

See also: Concentrate, Full Spectrum, Hash

Extract material

Extract material refers to trim, shake, or other cannabis material suitable only for extraction purposes, distinct from A and B Flowers.


Extraction refers to the process of separating cannabinoids, terpenes, and other beneficial compounds from the plant material to produce concentrated extracts. Various extraction methods, such as solvent-based or solventless techniques, are employed to isolate these compounds, resulting in potent and versatile cannabis products with specific profiles and effects.

Extraction plays a crucial role in the production of concentrates, oils, tinctures, and other cannabis-infused products.

See also: Cannabinoids, Terpenes, Extracts, Isolates

Fair market certification

Fair market certification ensures that cannabis and hemp materials have undergone quality scoring by an approved verification service following International Cannabis and Hemp Standards. This certification promotes transparency in the supply chain for buyers, sellers, and consumers.

Fan leaf

Fan leaves are the iconic, five-fingered leaves that symbolize cannabis plants. They emerge first and spread out to absorb light crucial for photosynthesis, fueling plant and flower growth. While often removed during trimming, fan leaves can be juiced to potentially harness the therapeutic benefits of their “raw” or acid-cannabinoids and other plant compounds.


Fanning, also known as stripping, shucking, or de-leafing, involves the removal of fan leaves from the stalk, leaving behind the flowers.

Feminized seed

Feminized seeds result from a process utilizing colloidal silver and sodium thiosulfate or gibberellic acid solutions to produce exclusively female seeds.


Flavonoids, present in cannabis alongside cannabinoids and terpenes, are common phytocompounds that likely contribute to the diverse effects of different cultivars. These plant pigments are found in various plant species and play a role in the entourage effect.

See also: Entourage Effect


Cannabis and hemp flowers refer to the dense, tail-shaped flowers that include the pistils or female plant sex organs. The pistil consists of two stigmas growing from a single bract or ovule. Unfertilized female flowers prioritize trichome-covered flowers rather than seed production.

See also: Pistils


Flowering marks the final stage of cannabis growth. It involves the development of either seed or dense trichome-rich flowers.

Flowering Time

Flowering times are measured in the time when plants produce mature flowers. Cannabis flowering periods depend upon the number of daily exposure that the flower has to sunlight. In a variety of strains, flower time and flowering time estimates are general estimates compared with the average flowering times. Flowering times can change depending on where to harvest and the grower has to choose how much time to harvest.


Flushing is the practice of using pH-balanced water without additional nutrients to rinse the soil, typically done up to two weeks before harvesting the plants.

Full extract cannabis oil (FECO)

Full extract cannabis oil, popularized by advocate Rick Simpson as a DIY cancer treatment, was initially produced using chemical solvents. West Coast producers now use grain alcohol to extract the full spectrum of phytocompounds from flowers. The resulting product is a potent, high-quality cannabis oil purged of alcohol.

See also: Alcohol Extraction, Full Spectrum

Full spectrum

Full spectrum is a term used to describe cannabis products that retain the complete array of natural phytocompounds present in the plant. These products contain not only cannabinoids like THC and CBD but also aromatic terpenes, flavonoids, and other beneficial plant compounds. By harnessing the synergistic effects of these diverse constituents, full spectrum products offer a comprehensive and potentially more effective cannabis experience.

See also: Concentrate


Genotype represents the genetic blueprint or genome of a cannabis plant, determining its unique characteristics.

See also: Chemotype, Phenotype


Germination is the initial stage of the cannabis life cycle, where seeds are provided with moisture and humidity to trigger the growth of sprouts and the development of their first roots.


The term “graded” pertains to cannabis and hemp materials, as well as their byproducts, that have undergone categorization and evaluation for quality through the International Cannabis and Hemp Standards (ICHS) Fair Market Certification.

See also: Quality-Verified


Greenhouses are enclosed structures that utilize sunlight and employ similar controls as indoor gardens.


The term “grow” pertains to the process of cultivating cannabis in a specialized garden, commonly recognized as a “grow-op.”


Hash, a cannabis concentrate derived from unpollinated female cannabis plants, is known for its potency and quality. It encompasses various forms of concentrated cannabis, including hash oil, which is processed to increase viscosity for dabbing or vaporizing. Hash oil is a type of hash that is commonly consumed through these methods.

See also: Concentrate, Extraction


An heirloom plant refers to a cultivar that has been carefully bred and consistently handed down from one grower to another over a significant period of time.

See also: Cultivar


Hemp, scientifically known as Cannabis L., encompasses a variety of selectively cultivated cannabis plants used for industrial purposes such as fiber extraction, seed production, and other applications. While colloquially associated with “marijuana,” hemp differentiates itself by containing extremely low levels of THC, typically below 0.03%. The 2018 Farm Bill legalized the cultivation and utilization of hemp with such low THC content, opening doors for its extensive industrial and personal applications.


Cannabis plants exhibit dioecious characteristics, meaning they have distinct male and female counterparts. However, various environmental factors or genetic influences can lead to the development of male stamens (pollen sacs) in female plants, resulting in seed production within the crop.

Honey Oil

Honey oil, also known as hash oil or cannabis oil, is a concentrated extract derived from the cannabis plant. It is produced through various extraction methods, resulting in a sticky and viscous oil with high levels of cannabinoids, such as THC or CBD. Honey oil is valued for its potent effects and versatile applications in medical and recreational cannabis products.

Hoop House

Hoop houses are outdoor cultivation setups with plants covered by hoops supporting a layer of plastic sheeting, which diffuses light. Hoop houses are sometimes utilized for light deprivation techniques.

See also: Light Deprivation, Environment


Hybrid cannabis strains are the result of deliberate genetic crosses between indica and sativa varieties, combining the desirable characteristics of both parent plants. These hybrids offer a wide range of effects and traits, providing a diverse selection of strains in the cannabis market. By carefully selecting and breeding cultivars, breeders create hybrids with unique profiles tailored to meet specific consumer preferences.

See also: Cultivars


Hydroponics is a highly effective cultivation method that entails growing plants without the need for soil. Instead, a soilless medium is utilized, and essential nutrients are supplied through water. This approach offers a range of benefits and ensures optimal plant growth and nutrition.

Illicit Market / Black Market

The “illicit market” or “black market” refers to the illegal trade of marijuana or cannabis products. It involves the sale and distribution of cannabis outside the legal framework established by state laws and regulatory authorities. The term “black market” is now less used due to its racist associations.


Indica is a subspecies of the cannabis plant known for its distinct characteristics. With short and wide fan leaves, dense growth, and darker green color, Indica strains offer a relaxing and pain-relieving experience. While they often have higher CBD levels, the sedative effects commonly attributed to Indica strains are not scientifically supported. Understanding the unique traits of Indica can help consumers make informed choices.

See also: Sativa


Indoor gardens offer the highest level of environmental control. Artificial light, such as light-emitting diode (LED) or high-intensity discharge (HID) lights, is regulated by timers to manage the crop’s flowering schedule. Indoor cultivation allows for precise customization and adjustment, often associated with higher-quality flowers.

See also: Environment


An isolate is a highly concentrated cannabis product that contains a single cannabinoid, such as THC or CBD, in its purest form. It undergoes a process of extraction and purification to remove all other compounds and terpenes, resulting in a product with a high level of cannabinoid purity. CBD isolate, for example, contains only the cannabinoid CBD without any other cannabinoids or plant compounds. Isolates are valued for their precise dosing and versatility in various cannabis applications.

See also: Extract, Distillate


A joint, also known as a marijuana cigarette or a cannabis cigarette, is the most popular and cheapest method of cannabis consumption. To make a joint, you only need dried and cured cannabis and rolling paper. The cannabis is placed in the rolling paper, which, after rolling, is ready to be smoked.


Kief is a solventless concentrate obtained by cooling and/or agitating cannabis plant material, causing the trichomes (cannabinoid and terpene-containing glands) to separate. It is a form of hash and is commonly used in the production of other concentrates.

See also: Concentrate, Hash, Trichomes


Landrace refers to cannabis varieties that have adapted and stabilized in specific isolated environments. These varieties serve as the foundation for modern hybridized cannabis cultivars through selective breeding.


Larf, also known as “B-Flower,” refers to the smaller and less dense flowers that develop beneath the canopy of cannabis plants due to limited exposure to light. They are typically smaller than 0.75 inches (approx. 20mm).

Light Deprivation

Light deprivation is a technique used in outdoor or greenhouse gardens where blackout curtains are employed to control the photoperiod and induces early flowering in cannabis plants.

See also: Photoperiod

Live Resin

Live resin is a highly sought-after cannabis extract or concentrate, crafted from freshly harvested flowers that are immediately frozen. By preserving the plant’s natural terpene profile, live resin offers a distinct aroma, flavor, and increased potency compared to other concentrates. It’s exceptional quality and unique characteristics make it a premium choice among cannabis connoisseurs, reflecting its higher price point in the market.

Live Resin Vape Concentrate

This product is live resin, filled in vape cartridges that can elevate your vaping session as they combine the best of the product – the high-quality resin, and the method of consumption – vaping.

Machine Wet Trimmed

Flowers categorized as “machine trimmed, wet” are trimmed by machines shortly after harvesting, removing the sugar leaves from the flowers.


Macronutrients, such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), are the fundamental nutrients necessary for optimal plant growth.


Manicuring is the final stage of hand-trimming cannabis flowers, involving the removal of sugar leaves and stems to shape the flower for aesthetic and quality purposes.


A manufacturer is a cannabis operator who purchases raw cannabis material to convert and sell as finished products.


Marijuana is a term used to refer to drug varieties of the Cannabis L. genus in the United States. It gained notoriety through the derogatory association with the Spanish term “Mary Jane,” as part of racially motivated campaigns against the cannabis plant. With its high THC content, marijuana is known for its intoxicating effects, making it a popular choice for recreational use. However, it also holds potential therapeutic value for various medical conditions.

Methods of Ingestion

Various methods are utilized to administer cannabinoids to the human endocannabinoid system. These methods include smoking, vaporizing, consuming orally, and applying topicals.

See also: Endocannabinoid System


METRC stands for Marijuana Enforcement Tracking Regulatory Compliance and is an online system used by many states to track the legal cannabis industry. METRC tracks the movement of cannabis products from seed to sale, including cultivation, manufacturing, transport, lab testing, dispensary sales, and waste disposal. It also allows regulators to monitor a licensee’s activity more closely.


Micronutrients are vital elements that plants require in smaller quantities to support their growth. These elements include chlorine (Cl), molybdenum (Mo), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and boron (B).

Multi-State Operator (MSO)

Generally, MSOs are marijuana companies operating across multiple legally defined states. Major MSOs operate and control their own supply chains, including production, wholesale, and distribution.


Mycotoxins are naturally occurring fungi and molds that can be present in cannabis. State-mandated cannabis laboratory testing often includes screening for mycotoxins.

Natural Nutrients

Natural nutrients are obtained through organic processes in the soil or compost, providing essential elements for plant growth and development.


Outdoor cultivation involves growing plants under natural sunlight during the regular growing season. Plants are either directly planted in the ground or placed in raised beds or pots.

See also: Environment

Pharmaceutical Cannabinoid

Pharmaceutical cannabinoids are legally approved medications containing plant-derived or synthetic cannabinoids. These medications are regulated by the FDA.

See also: Cannabinoid, Endocannabinoid System


Phenotype refers to the observable characteristics and physical traits of a plant, determined by its genetic makeup or genotype. It encompasses features such as appearance, structure, and other traits exhibited by the plant.

See also: Genotype, Chemotype


Photoperiod refers to the duration of light and darkness in a plant’s environment, which affects its flowering cycle. Flowering is typically triggered when the period of uninterrupted darkness exceeds 12 hours, signaling the plant to transition to the reproductive phase.


Phytocannabinoids are naturally occurring cannabinoids found in cannabis and hemp plants. These compounds interact with the endocannabinoid system in the human body, influencing various physiological processes. Phytocannabinoids are primarily produced by the trichomes, which are the resin glands found on the surface of the cannabis plant. They play a crucial role in the therapeutic potential of cannabis and are the focus of extensive research in the medical and scientific communities.

See also: Cannabinoid, Endocannabinoid System


Pistils are the female reproductive organs of the plant, consisting of two stigmas that collect pollen and an ovule (bract) that can develop into a seed when fertilized. The color and shape of pistils provide insight into the plant’s growth conditions and environmental influences.

Popcorn Buds

Popcorn buds, also known as B-Flower, are smaller and less dense flowers that develop beneath the plant’s canopy. These buds are typically smaller than 0.75 inches (approx. 20mm) and may have different characteristics compared to larger flowers.

See also: B-Flower


Propane is a high-yielding solvent employed to separate cannabinoids and terpene-rich trichomes from cannabis leaf material. Controlled industrial processes evaporate the propane, resulting in hash known as PHO, shatter, or wax, typically consumed through vaporization, dabbing, or further refined through distillation.

Quality Attributes

The key quality attributes used to evaluate raw cannabis flowers include smell, color, structure, and trichome density. These attributes are assessed and graded on a scale of 0 to 100 to determine the overall quality of the flowers.


Quality-verified refers to raw cannabis materials and their byproducts that have undergone grading and evaluation according to the International Cannabis and Hemp Standards (ICHS) Fair Market Certification. This certification ensures transparency and quality assurance in the supply chain.

See also: Graded

Relative Humidity (RH)

Relative humidity is a measurement of the amount of moisture present in the air, expressed as a percentage. It plays a crucial role in maintaining optimal environmental conditions for cannabis cultivation, affecting plant health, growth, and overall development.

Residual Solvent

Residual solvents are solvents that may remain in cannabis extracts after the extraction process, posing potential health risks if not adequately removed. Testing for residual solvents is essential to ensure the safety and purity of cannabis products.


A retailer, also known as a dispensary, is a legally licensed establishment that sells cannabis products directly to consumers. They provide a point of sale and distribution for cannabis products, complying with local regulations and licensing requirements.

Rick Simpson Oil (RSO)

Rick Simpson Oil, also known as Full Extract Cannabis Oil (FECO), gained popularity as a DIY cancer treatment. It involves using solvents, typically grain alcohol, to extract a full spectrum of compounds from cannabis flowers. The resulting oil is concentrated and can be used for various purposes.

See also: FECO


A dab rig, or a concentrate rig, is a type of apparatus designed for smoking cannabis products such as rosin, shatter, butane hash oil (BHO), CO2 oil, or other cannabis concentrates. It is typically made out of glass and has become popular for consuming concentrates.

See also: Concentrates


Rooting is the process of establishing a healthy root system for clones or seeds before entering the vegetative growth phase. It ensures that the plant has a strong foundation for nutrient absorption and overall growth.


Rosin is a concentrate made from the cannabis plant that’s produced without using solvents or chemicals. The cannabis compounds are extracted using heat and pressure, resulting in a cleaner final product compared to other extraction methods.


Ruderalis refers to auto-flowering cannabis varieties that transition from the vegetative to the flowering stage based on their maturity, rather than relying on photoperiods like Indica or Sativa varieties. Ruderalis strains have a faster growth cycle compared to photoperiod-dependent strains.

See also: Autoflower, Sativa, Indica


Sativa is a subspecies of the cannabis plant known for its distinct characteristics. Sativa plants typically have long and narrow fan leaves, grow tall and slender, and feature a lighter green coloration. They are known for producing a head high that is often associated with euphoria and uplifting effects. Sativa strains tend to have higher levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive compound in cannabis. However, it’s important to note that the effects of cannabis are not solely determined by the Sativa or Indica classification, as individual strain profiles can vary significantly.

See also: Indica


Seed-to-sale refers to software programs mandated by state cannabis regulations to track and report the inventory of cannabis products from the cultivation phase to the final point of sale.

Seed-to-Sale Software

Seed-to-Selling solutions are integrated solutions for monitoring the cannabis supply chain at every step of its operation. It follows the process from the cultivation of the cannabis seed through the distribution of the seed.

Many people believe seed-to-sell software is a comprehensive solution for vertically integrated cannabis dispensary systems. However, the system has dozens of disadvantages that many people don’t even know about.

See also: METRC

SEO (Search Engine Optimization)

A critical component for cannabis-related websites to increase their visibility and attract potential customers by ranking higher in search results.


Shake refers to the loose, crumbled leaves and small flowers found at the bottom of a container of cannabis. It is commonly used for making concentrates or other cannabis-infused products.


Shatter is a type of concentrate made through the extraction process, typically using butane as a solvent. It has a translucent and brittle appearance, often referred to as Butane Hash Oil (BHO).

See also: Butane Hash Oil


Soil is a natural growing medium used to cultivate cannabis plants. It provides a stable foundation for root development and supplies essential nutrients required for plant growth.


The stamen is the male reproductive organ of a cannabis flower, consisting of the filament and anther, which produces and releases pollen.


The stem is the main supporting structure of the cannabis plant, connecting the roots to the branches and supporting the flowers. It can also refer to the remaining bases of sugar leaves after trimming.


Stigmas are the hair-like structures found on female cannabis flowers. They capture pollen and play a crucial role in fertilization. The color and appearance of the stigma can indicate the maturity of the flower.


Strain, commonly referred to as cultivar, describes a specific genetic variety or lineage of cannabis with distinct characteristics, including appearance, aroma, and effects.

Sugar Leaf

Sugar leaves are smaller leaves that surround and often touch the flowers of the cannabis plant. They are covered in resin-rich trichomes and are often removed during the trimming process to create extracts or other cannabis products.

See also: Trichomes

Synthetic Cannabinoid

Synthetic cannabinoids are artificially designed and manufactured cannabinoids, intended for pharmaceutical, recreational, or illicit use. Non-pharmaceutical synthetic cannabinoids have been associated with severe health issues and, in some cases, fatalities. Regulation of these substances poses challenges.

See also: Cannabinoid, Endocannabinoid System

Synthetic/Supplemental Nutrients

Synthetic or supplemental nutrients are products used to provide additional essential elements to cannabis plants, typically in liquid or powder form, to support growth and development.


Terpenes are natural chemical compounds that are abundant in various plants, including cannabis. These aromatic compounds are responsible for the distinctive smells and flavors found in different cannabis strains. They also interact with other compounds in the plant, such as cannabinoids, to create what is known as the entourage effect. Apart from their sensory qualities, terpenes are believed to have potential therapeutic benefits, including anti-anxiety, antifungal, antibacterial, and even anti-cancer properties. Their diverse range and potential effects make terpenes an area of interest and research in the cannabis industry.

See also: Entourage Effect

Tetrahydrocannabinolic-acid (THCa)

THCa is the precursor to THC found in raw cannabis. It is non-intoxicating and offers potential analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. THCa can be obtained by juicing raw leaves or using tinctures made from fresh cannabis flowers.

Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV)

THCV is a lesser-known cannabinoid found in certain cannabis varieties. Early studies suggest it may help regulate blood sugar levels and assist in weight management. Unlike Δ-9 THC, THCV is used as an appetite suppressant and anti-anxiety agent.


Tinctures are concentrated cannabis preparations made by extracting cannabinoids and other compounds from the plant using alcohol as a solvent. The resulting liquid is potent and offers precise dosing options when consumed orally or sublingually. Tinctures are known for their rapid absorption into the bloodstream, making them an efficient and convenient method of cannabis consumption.


Topicals are cannabis-infused products, such as ointments or salves, designed for direct application to the skin. They are commonly used for cosmetic purposes and to alleviate pain, inflammation, and rashes.


Trichomes are resinous glands found on cannabis flowers, containing cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids. They play a crucial role in producing the desired effects and contribute to the overall potency and quality of cannabis.


Trimming refers to the process of removing unwanted leaves and stems from cannabis flowers. It can be done manually or with machines, and it helps shape the final appearance of the flower.


Untrimmed cannabis refers to flowers that have been harvested and had their fan leaves removed but still have the sugar leaves intact.

Vape Cartridge

A vape cartridge is a discreet way of enjoying marijuana. It can be used as a recreational drug holder at home or by professionals.

Vape Pen

A vape pen is a battery-operated device that heats the concentrate inside the cartridge to the right temperature, stimulating decarboxylation while preserving the quality of terpenes and cannabinoids. It is an alternative to cigarettes and is commonly used by cannabis consumers.


A vaporizer is a device designed to heat cannabis extracts, concentrates, or raw flowers to release terpenes and cannabinoids for inhalation without combustion.

Vegetative Growth

Vegetative growth is the phase in the cannabis life cycle that occurs after germination and before flowering. During this stage, plants focus on developing foliage, increasing in size, and preparing for the reproductive phase.

Water-Soluble Cannabinoids

Water-soluble cannabinoids refer to cannabinoids that have been broken down into extremely small sizes that can be immersed in water-based mixtures. They are an improvement on traditional cannabis-infused beverages, as they have a faster onset time and do not have the flavor of the cannabis concentrate.


Wax is a type of concentrate or extract made from cannabis using butane as a solvent. It has a soft and malleable consistency and is commonly consumed through vaporization or dabbing.

See also: Concentrate, Extract

Cannabis Terminology Conclusion

Are you the proud owner of a cannabis brand or ancillary business, seeking to boost your visibility in organic search results? Contact us today for a complimentary analysis or delve into our informative Guide to Cannabis SEO.

Contact Evergreen Cannabis SEO for a free analysis


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Brady Madden

Brady Madden

Brady Madden has been working in performance based marketing and digital marketing with a specialty in SEO for 14+ years. Brady primarily works with cannabis companies (hemp and marijuana), ranging from CBD e-commerce stores, MSOs and dispensaries, cannabis devics, B2B manufacturers, cannabinoid water soluble suppliers, SaaS companies and more. Brady has helped create and update web pages generating over 10 Million page views as well as millions of dollars in revenue.

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